Mt. Kilimanjaro

Outline.

Mount Kilimanjaro has three volcanic cones, “Kibo”, “Mawenzi”, and “Shira”. It is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. The highest mountain in Africa, about 4,900m at its base, and 5,895 meters above sea level. The principal individuals known to have arrived at the summits of the mountain were Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller in 1889. The mountain is important for the Kilimanjaro National Park and is a significant climbing destination.

There are seven official trekking routes by which to ascend and descend Kilimanjaro: Lemosho, Machame, Marangu, Mweka, Rongai, Shira, and Umbwe. Of every one of the courses, Machame is generally prefered as the most scenic, but more extreme course. This was valid until the launch of Lemosho and Northern Circuit courses, which are similarly scenic if not more. The Machame course should be possible in six or seven days, Lemosho should be possible in six to eight days, and the Northern Circuit courses should be possible in at least seven days. The Rongai is the most effortless and least beautiful of all camping routes. The Marangu is likewise moderately simple, however, this course will, in general, be occupied, the ascent and descent routes are something similar, and the convenience of using mountain huts shared with other climbers

The origin of the name “Kilimanjaro” is not precisely known, however various speculations exist. European travellers had received the name by 1860 and announced that “Kilimanjaro” was the mountain’s Swahili name. The 1907 release of The Nuttall Encyclopædia also records the name of the mountain as “Kilima-Njaro”.

Johann Ludwig Krapf wrote in 1860 that Swahilis along the coast called the mountain “Kilimanjaro”. Despite the fact that he didn’t uphold his claim, he asserted that “Kilimanjaro” implied either “mountain of greatness” or “mountain of caravans”. Under the last signifying, “Kilima” signified “mountain” and “Jaro” potentially signified “caravans”.”Njaro” is an antiquated Kiswahili word for “sparkling”.

On 6 October 1889, Hans Meyer reached the highest summit on the crater ridge of Kibo.

First sightings by non-native adventurers

The German missionaries Johannes Rebmann of Mombasa and Krapf were the first Europeans to reach the snowy mountain. As per English geographer Halford Mackinder and English explorer Harry Johnston, Rebmann in 1848 were the first European to report the existence of Kilimanjaro.

Climbing history

On 6 October 1889, Hans Meyer reached the most elevated highest point on the crater edge of Kibo. They were the first to affirm that Kibo has a crater.  The first ascent of the highest summit of Mawenzi was made on 29 July 1912, by the German climbers Eduard Hans Oehler and Fritz Klute, who named it Hans Meyer Peak. Oehler and Klute proceeded to make the third-historically speaking ascent of Kibo, through the Drygalski Glacier and descended via the Western Breach.

Youngest and oldest people to summit

In spite of an age-breaking point of 10 years for a climbing permit, special cases are every so often conceded. Montannah Kenney, a 7-year-old young lady from Texas broke the world record as the most youthful female to ascend the tallest mountain in Africa in March 2018. Her inspiration was the passing of her late dad.

Additionally, Keats Boyd of Los Angeles was just seven years of age when he summited Kilimanjaro on 21 January 2008. The oldest person to reach Uhuru Peak was Angela Vorobeva at age 86 years and 267 days. American Robert Wheeler is the oldest man to reach the highest point at 85 years and 201 days when he summited on 2 October 2014.

Climbs by handicapped individuals

Wheelchair user Bernard Goosen scaled Kilimanjaro in six days in 2007, while in 2012 Kyle Maynard, who has no forearms or lower legs, slithered unassisted to the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro.

Kilimanjaro has two unmistakable rainy seasons, one from March to May and another around November. The northern slopes get significantly less precipitation than the southern ones.

The normal temperature in the highest point zone is around −7 °C (19 °F). Nighttime surface temperatures on the Northern Ice Field (NIF) fall on normal to −9 °C (16 °F) with average daytime high temperatures of −4 °C (25 °F). During evenings of extreme radiational cooling, the NIF can cool to as low as −15 to −27 °C (5 to −17 °F).

Climate Zones.
Bushland, 800 m – 1,800 m (2,600 ft – 5,900 ft);

Rainweald, 1,800 m – 2,800 m (5,900 ft – 9,200 ft);

Heath and Moorland, 2,800 m – 4,000 m (9,200 ft – 13,100 ft);

High country Barrens, 4,000 m – 5,000 m (13,100 ft–16,400 ft);

Ice Cap, 5,000 m – 5,895 m (16,400 ft – 19,341 ft).

Glaciers.

In the last part of the 1880s, the summit of Kibo was totally covered by an ice cap covering about 20km² with outlet icy masses falling down the western and southern slopes, and aside from the inward cone, the whole caldera was covered. Glacier mass ice additionally coursed through the Western Breach. Their receding shows they are still out of balance because of a steady climate change in the environment throughout the last recent 100 years.

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